Wording and interpretation by state courts of "obstructing" laws also varies; for example, New York "obstructing" law  apparently requires physical rather than simply verbal obstruction;   likewise, a violation of the Colorado "obstructing" law appears to require use or threat of use of physical force.
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However, the Colorado Supreme Court held in Dempsey v. People , No. Woods concluded that failure to present identification constituted a violation of that law. It is not universally agreed that, absent a "stop and identify law", there is no obligation for a detainee to identify himself.
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For example, as the U. Supreme Court noted in Hiibel , California "stop and identify" statute was voided in Kolender v. But in People v. Long ,  decided four years after Kolender , a California appellate court found no constitutional impropriety in a police officer's demand for written identification from a detainee. The issue before the Long court was a request for suppression of evidence uncovered in a search of the defendant's wallet, so the issue of refusal to present identification was not directly addressed; however, the author of the Long opinion had apparently concluded in a case that failure to identify oneself did not provide a basis for arrest.
Some courts, e. Flynn Wis. Loudermilk Calif.
Garcia strongly disagreed. In the case of Utah v. Strieff , the U. Supreme Court ruled that an officer's stop of Edward Strieff and his demand for identification from Strieff was unlawful under Utah state law, but that the evidence collected pursuant to the stop was admissible due to the determination that Strieff was subject to a pre-existing arrest warrant.
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Therefore, the pre-existing warrant "attenuated" the unlawful stop-and-identify. Some legal organizations, such as the National Lawyers Guild and the ACLU of Northern California, recommend to either remain silent or to identify oneself whether or not a jurisdiction has a "stop and identify" law:.
In a more recent pamphlet, the ACLU of Northern California elaborated on this further, recommending that a person detained by police should:. Many countries allow police to demand identification and arrest people who do not carry any or refuse to produce so. Normally these countries provide all residents with national identity cards , which have the identity information the police would want to know, including citizenship. Foreign visitors need to have their passport available to show at all times. In some cases national identity cards from certain other countries are accepted.
For example, in Portugal it is compulsory to carry the state ID card at all times. Police can only ask for the ID card in public or a place open to public and only if there is a reasonable suspicion the person committed a crime.
A certified copy of the ID card can be presented in such situations. If a citizen does not carry the ID card or its certified copy, the police will escort the person to the police department to remain detained until clear identification can be obtained. In other countries like Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, police generally have no power to demand identification unless they have a statutory power to do so.
For example, these countries have laws that require those driving to produce their licence or state their name, address, etc when stopped by police. Police may also require people to identify themselves if they have reasonable grounds to believe that they have committed a crime. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Arrest.
Main article: List of national identity card policies by country.
In general, peace officers are state civil officers charged with preserving the public peace and granted the authority to do so. Peace officers normally include police officers, sheriffs and sheriffs' deputies, marshals, constables, and often many other persons; those included vary among the states. As best we can tell, petitioner refused to identify himself only because he thought his name was none of the officer's business.
In that case, the court can then consider whether the privilege applies, and, if the Fifth Amendment has been violated, what remedy must follow. We need not resolve those questions here. The statute in Kolender had been interpreted to require a suspect to give the officer "credible and reliable" identification.
Rights During a Detention or Arrest | Éducaloi
Provided that the suspect either states his name or communicates it to the officer by other means—a choice, we assume, that the suspect may make—the statute is satisfied and no violation occurs. Ohio , Chief Justice Warren stated, And in justifying the particular intrusion the police officer must be able to point to specific and articulable facts which, taken together with rational inferences from those facts, reasonably warrant that intrusion.
Royer U. Mendenhall , U.
Or, if you do not feel comfortable doing that, you can ask if you are free to go. If the answer is yes, you can consider just walking away. Do not run from the officer. If the officer says you are not under arrest, but you are not free to go, then you are being detained. In Michigan v. Chesternut , U. Ohio , Justice White stated that a person detained can be questioned but is "not obliged to answer, answers may not be compelled, and refusal to answer furnishes no basis for an arrest. McCarty , U. Woods , [ F. However, in Carey v. Nevada Gaming Control Board [ F.
Supreme Court declined to address the issue of identification in Brown v. Texas , U. Muniz , U. Horton , F. Hubbell , U. Hiibel held that, in the circumstances of the case, a person's name is not incriminating, and consequently is not protected by the Fifth-Amendment privilege against self-incrimination. Giving false information is a related, and usually more serious offense under Subsection [b], noted above , and applies to detainees as well as arrestees.
Quiroga 16 Cal. Section can reasonably be construed as applying to nondisclosure of identity following arrest for felonies, but not minor offenses, if this exception applies to the provisions cited above dealing with arrests for minor offenses. State Fla. We, nevertheless, conclude that after an individual has been lawfully arrested, he must provide his name or otherwise identify himself when asked by law enforcement officers.
For some reason, the Indiana law was not included in the list; the Arizona and Ohio laws have been enacted since Hiibel was decided. The Texas law only applies to arrested persons.
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See Hiibel. Why would we treat them differently? Legislative Republicans largely opposed the immigration agenda of Democrats. But there was bipartisan consensus on one bill that at least indirectly involves immigrants, regardless of their legal status.
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The legislation requires public schools to provide U. Census materials to students and parents that encourage them to take part in the decennial nationwide population count. The bill passed unanimously in both the Assembly and Senate and was signed by Newsom earlier this month. Census results also determine the number of representatives in Congress granted to each state. The administration later abandoned the effort, which was challenged in the courts. About Us. Brand Publishing.
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